Causes of a Jones Fracture
A traumatic event that causes an inversion of the ankle can sometimes cause a Jones Fracture. This is because the Peroneus Brevis and Peroneous Tertius tendons pull in opposite directions on the fifth metatarsal, so the force applied in an inversion tightens both of these tendons, causing the bone to crack. Once the stability of the bone is lost, the area will be extremely painful and likely will require surgery.
2. Overuse & Repetitive Stress
In many sports, twisting inversion of the ankle is a standard movement. In sports such as dance, hockey, and ski racing, normal wear and tear can put repetitive stress on the fifth metatarsal and supporting tendons, resulting in a Jones Fracture. In some cases these can be more difficult to correct surgically or otherwise, due to the fact that the lateral connective tendons (Peroneous Brevis and Peroneou Tertius) are stretched out and provide less protection to the fifth metatarsal once the fracture has healed.